Plumbing, including drainpipes, requires reinforced floor joists that can support the weight. This is especially important in new bathrooms where fixtures and appliances create large stresses on the structure.
Reinforcing joists can range from simple scabbing to more involved methods such as bridging and sistering of framing members. No matter which option you select, a thorough inspection is necessary to confirm if your joists can support various types of plumbing pipes.
Scabbing, a relatively straightforward technique that involves overlapping sections of plywood onto the joists and nailing them together with 10d nails, is an effective way to strengthen a sagging floor.
However, it should be noted that while this will provide significant resistance against bounciness, it will also add some movement to the surface – something to be mindful of if your room already has lots of kids or exercise equipment present.
Another option for reinforcement is sistering, where identical lumber is bolted to a framing member and then screwed down for increased strength. You could also use a steel flitch plate wedged between two joists to increase their support beneath the floor joists.
Sistering is an effective solution to reinforce any type of floor joist, but it’s particularly useful in bathroom remodels when plumbing requires the use of a joist. You could even apply it in basements where floor beams restrict headroom and can be strengthened through sistering joists.
Biding, X-bracing and blocking are other techniques that can help stabilize your joists. When using bridging, it is essential that the joists be shimmed so they make contact with either the beam or wall. You may use a speed square or joist bridging angle table to guarantee equal placement of each joist.
When installing bridging, the distance between the center of the joist and its bottom edge should be equal to or slightly less than twice its width. This will prevent deflection of the bridge, leading to a sagging floor.
Blocking, which involves short pieces of lumber the same depth as the joists that connect perpendicularly in either a straight or staggered line, is another effective method to prevent joist deflection.
However, these blocks must be sized properly to fit plumb into each pair of joists; therefore, use either a speed square or joist bending angle table for this project or utilize a pneumatic palm nailer when hammering in place the blocks.
Flitch plates are a commonly-used reinforcement for floor joists, offering an easy and cost-effective way to increase their structural strength. You can purchase these plates at any home improvement store and attach them directly onto the tops of the joists for added support.
Final Thoughts on Plumbing in Floor Joists
Before drilling any holes in floor joists, be sure to consult local building codes and zoning regulations. In some places and states there are restrictions against drilling holes larger than three inches across in order to protect people from injuries caused by falling objects in the house.
Furthermore, some states prohibit drilling in rim joists – that is the frame around the perimeter of your house where floor joists butt into – for similar reasons.